Catholicate Chronology


Chronological order of the Catholicos/Maphriyono's of the East

I.  METROPOLITANS OF SELEUCIA

 

(Following are the list of bishops, starting from Papa bar Aggai, who tried to bring the Church in the Persian Empire in an organised form)

Papa bar Aggai

285-326/7

He was the first bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon who tried to bring all churches in the Persian Empire under a single authority. Though he had the support of the Patriarch of Antioch and his counterparts in the Eastern Roman Empire, he couldn't succeed because of the rivalry between the bishops in Persia.

Shimun (Simon) Bar Sabbae

326/7-344

Martyred by order of Persian King Shapur II

Shahdost

344-345

Martyred

Barbashmin

345-346

Martyred on January 9, 346

Thomooso

364/5-372/3

 

Qayuma

372/3-380

 
 

II.  CATHOLICOS OF SELEUCIA/EAST

Around 300 AD, attempts were begun to establish the Church in the Persian Empire in an organised form. In Persia, till then, there was no particular or specific bishop, who was deemed the head. It was Papa Bar Aggai, the bishop of the Persian royal capital at Seleucia-Ctesiphon, who for the first time, tried to bring about the consolidation of the Church. In fact, from around 315 AD, he had been using the title ‘CATHOLICOS’ in his communications. But this title, with its full jurisdictional implications, gained legal recognition only by 410 AD, at the Synod of the Persian Bishops held at Seleucia. The referred Council was held under the auspices of Bishop Mor Marutha of Muipharqat of the Eastern Roman Empire, after obtaining the letter of consent from the Patriarch of Antioch and the prelates of Aleppo, Edessa, Tella and Amid. It was this historic Synod that upheld for the first time, the primacy of the Seleucian bishop. MOR ISHAQ (Issac), the bishop of Seleucia, thus became the head of the Persian Church and was acknowledged the first "CATHOLICOS OF THE EAST", with jurisdiction over the entire Persian Empire. 

The ‘Catholicate of the East’ was set up to serve as a link between the Antiochean Patriarchate situated in the Eastern Roman Empire and the Syrian Christians living in the Persian Empire. With this, the Persians who had found it politically hazardous to go over to the Patriarchate for obtaining Episcopal ordination and fulfilling the ecclesiastical needs, could still claim and maintain apostolic relation with the Holy See of Antioch. The ‘Catholicos of Seleucia/East’ was the deputy of the Patriarch of Antioch with certain privileges including that of consecrating the Bishops on behalf of the Patriarch.  

Furnished below is the chronological list of the occupants of the seat of Catholicate, beginning from Mor Ishaq.

Mor Ishaq (Isaac)

399-410/2

Died at Seleucia

Mor Ahai

410/2-414/5

Died at Seleucia

Mor Yaballaha I

414/5-420

 

Mor Mana

420

Deposed from the Catholicate because of his Nestorian teachings.

Mor Dadyeshu

421-450

 

Mor Babowai

450-484

 Martyred by order of Persian King Peroz

The Catholicate fell into heresy after Mor Babowai

 

III.  GREAT METROPOLITANS OF THE EAST

Bishops ordained for the rejuvenated Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite) Church in the Persian East after the ‘Catholicate of the East’ fell into ‘Nestorian’ heresy.

Mor Ahudemeh

559-575

Born at Balad, he was consecrated a bishop for the diocese of Baarbaya. In 559 he was elevated to the office of the Metropolitan of the east by St. Yakub Burdono. Mor Ahudemeh is counted as the first 'Metropolitan of the East' after it had been usurped by the Nestorians. Tigrit was the headquarters of his Metropolitan See.  He was imprisoned by King Khusrau I for converting a member of the Persian royal family and received martyrdom on 2nd Aug, 575

Mor Khameeso

578-609

 

Mor Samuel

614-624

 

IV.  MAPHRIYONO (Maphrian) OF THE EAST

 

The title ‘Maphriyono’ or ‘Maphrian’, came into usage since AD 629. The office of the ‘Maphrian of the East’ was founded to take care of the Syrian Orthodox faithful, living in the dioceses of the ancient territory of the Persian Sassanid Empire and who were under the Patriarchate of Antioch. The transition of the title, from ‘Catholicos’ to ‘Maphrian’, was effected by the Syrian Jacobites to maintain their identity and distinctiveness from those who embraced Nestorianism.  

Tigrit was originally the main centre of the members of the Syrian Orthodox community and also the head quarters of the Church. Following the destruction of the city around the 12th century, the Maphrianate was transferred at different times to various monasteries in Mosul and nearby areas, in Northern Iraq.

The term ‘Maphrian’ is derived from the Syriac word ‘afri’, meaning, “to make fruitful”. In the mid 13th century the title ‘Catholicos’ was adopted by some occupants of the Maphrianate. It is this title that is being used in India today, while the title ‘Maphrian’ is no longer used.

   

Period

Remarks

 The Patriarchs of Antioch who ordained the Maphriyono's

 

1.

Mor Marutha (Morooso)

629-649

He had oversight of 13 bishoprics to which 4 more added subsequently. Tigrit was the headquarters of the Maphrianate of the East --  Died on 2 May, 649

Patriarch Mor Athanasius I Gammolo

 

2.

Mor Denha I

649-659

 

Patriarch Mor Theodore

 

3.

Bar Easo

669-683

 

Patriarch Mor Severius bar Masqeh

 

4.

Mor Abraham (Ibrahim al-Sayyad)

685-686

 

Patriarch Mor Athanasius II

 

5.

Mor David

686

 

As the Patriarchal See was vacant after the demise of Patriarch Mor Athanasius II, Bishops of Tigrith Archdiocese ordained the Maphrian

 

6.

Mor Yohannan

686-688

 

As the Patriarchal See was vacant after the demise of Patriarch Mor Athanasius II, Bishops of Tigrith Archdiocese ordained the Maphrian

 

7.

Mor Denha II

688-728

Following the complaints received from the Bishops of Tigrit Archdiocese, the Patriarch removed the Maphrian from the office

Name of the Patriarch who consecrated the Maphrian not available

 

8.

Mor Paulose

728-757

 

Patriarch Mor Athanasius III

 

9.

Mor Yohannan II

758-785

Maphrian was removed from the office by the Patriarch following complaints received from the Bishops of Tigrith Archdiocese

Patriarch Mor Geevarghese I

 

10.

Mor Joseph

785-786

 

Patriarch Mor Kuriakose of Tigrit

 

11.

Mor Sarbiel

794-810

The Maphrian submitted resignation before the Patriarch following allegations.

Patriarch Mor Kuriakose of Tigrit

 

12.

Mor Shemavun

811- ?

 

Patriarch Mor Kuriakose from Tigrit

 

13.

Mor Baselios

  ?  -830

 

Patriarch Mor Kuriakose from Tigrit

 

14.

Mor Daniel

829-834

 

Patriarch Mor Dionysius I from Tellmahreh

 

15.

Mor Thoma

834-847

Died May 8, 847

Patriarch Mor Dionysius I of Tellmahreh

 

16.

Mor Baselios II (Lazar the Stylite)

848-868

Died October 17, 868

Patriarch Mor Yuhanon III

 

17.

Mor Malkeesadek

857-869

Died November 25, 868

Patriarch Mor Yuhanon III.

 

18.

Mor Sargis

872-883

Died November 11. 883

Consecrated by the Episcopal Synod

 

19.

Mor Athanasius

887-903

Consecrated Maphrian on February 8, 887 -- Died December 27, 903

Patriarch Mor Theodosius Romanos from Tigrit

 

20.

Mor Thoma II (Stylite)

910-911

Consecrated Maphrian on September 9, 910

Patriarch Mor Yuhanon IV Qurzahli

 

21.

Mor Denha III

912-932

 

Patriarch Mor Yuhanon IV Qurzahli

 

22.

Mor Baselios III

936-960

Consecrated Maphrian in November 936

Name of the Patriarch who consecrated the Maphrian not available

 

23.

Mor Kuriakose

962-979

 

Patriarch Mor Abraham I

 

24.

Mor Yuhanon III of Damascus

980(981?) -988

 

Patriarch Mor Yuhanon VI Sarigta

 

25.

Mor Ignatius bar Keekke

991-1016

Tigrit was confirmed as the seat of the Syrian Orthodox in 991 by order of the Khalifate

Patriarch Mor Athanasius IV of Salah

 

26.

Mor Athanasius II of Edessa

1027-1041

 

Patriarch Mor Yuhanon VII bar`Abdun

 

27.

Mor Baselios IV of Tigrith

1046-1069

 

As the Patriarchal See remained vacant for a few years after the demise of Patriarch Mor Dionysius IV Yahya in 1044, Bishops of Tigrit Archdiocese ordained the Maphrian

 

28.

Mor Yuhanon Sleeba I

1075-1106

Following the attack on Tigrit by the Arabs in 1089, the Maphriante moved to Mosul

Patriarch Mor Baselios II

 

29.

Mor Dionysius Mosa

1112-1134

Maphrian Mor Dionysius returned to Tigrit

Patriarch Mor Athanasius VI bar Khamoro

 

30.

Mor Ignatius Lazar

1142(1143?) -1164

In 1152 the two sees of Mosul and Tigrit were united and the Maphrian’s title was “Metropolitan of Mosul and Nineveh”.  With the destruction of Tigrit by the caliph in 1156, the Maphrianate permanently moved to Mosul. Mor Mattai Monastery become the seat of Maphrian.

Patriarch Mor Athanasius VII bar Qutreh

 

31.

Mor Yuhanon Sarugoyo (Sarug)

1164-1188

 

Patriarch Mor Athanasius VII bar Qutreh

 
 

Mor Dionysius

1189-1203

Challenger

   

32.

Mor Gregorios Yakub

1189-1214

 

Patriarch Mor Michael Rabo

 

33.

Mor Ignatius David

1215-1222

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius III David (1222-'52)

Patriarch Mor Yuhanon XI

 

34.

Mor Dionysius Sleeba

1222-1231

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius III David

 

35.

Mor Yuhanon Bar Ma`dani

1232-1252

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Yuhanon XII Bar Ma`dani (1252-'63)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius III David

 

36.

Mor Ignatius Sleeba

1252-1258

Become the Maphrian in December, 1252

Patriarch Mor Yuhanon  XII bar Ma`dani

 

37.

Mor Gregorios Bar Ebrayo

1264-1286

The most famous of all the Maphrians--Ordained Maphrian on 19 Jan, 1264--died on 30 July, 1286

Patriarch Mor Ignatius IV Yeshu

 

38.

Mor GregoriosBar Souma

1288(1289?) -1308

Brother of Mor Gregorios Bar Ebrayo

Patriarch Mor Philexinos I

 

39.

Mor Gregorios Mathai

1317-1345

 

Patriarch Mor Michael III

 

40.

Mor Athanasius Abraham

1364-1379

 

Patriarch Mor Baselios III

 
 

Mor Gregorios bar Kainaya

(?)  - 1361

Challenger

   

41.

Mor Baselios Behnam al-Hadli (Hadliyo)

1404-1412

Became the Patriarch of Mardin in 1412. In 1445 he was enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH Mor Ignatius Behnam al-Hadli (1445-‘54)

Patriarch Mor Philexinos II

 

42.

Mor Behnam Araboyo (Diascorus)

1415-1417

 

Mor Ignatius Behnam al-Hadli, when he was the Patriarch of Mardin

 

43.

Mor Bar Souma Moudyano

1422 -1455

Consecrated Maphrian on April 9, 1422

Mor Ignatius Behnam al-Hadli, when he was the Patriarch of Mardin

 

44.

Mor Baselios Azeez

1471-1487

Died in September, 1487

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Khalaf

 

45.

Mor Nuh the Lebanese

1489-1493

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Nuh (1493-1509) -- Died on 28 July, 1509

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Yuhanon  XIII

 

46.

Mor Abraham

1496-1508

Consecrated Maphrian on Jan 5, 1496.

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Nuh

 

47.

Mor Baselios Blias

(?)  - 1523

Details of this Maphrian is not available.

It is not known who ordained this Maphrian

 

48.

Mor Athanasius Habeeb I

1528-1533

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Abd-Allah I

 

49.

Mor Baselios Elias

1533-1552

From 1533 the Maphrians added ‘BASELIOS’ to their name. Since a Maphriante for ‘Turabdin’ came into existence around the year 1500, the MAPHRIANATE OF THE EAST, with their seat in Mosul, came to be also known as ‘MAPHRIANANTE OF MOSUL’ in order to distinguish from the former

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Abd-Allah I

 

50.

Mor Baselios Nemet Allah I

1555-1557

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Ne`met Allah I (1557-'76)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Abd-Allah I

 

51.

Mor Baselios Abded al Ghani

1557-1575

Died June 19, 1575

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Ne`met Allah I

 

52.

Mor Baselios David Shah Ibin Nur`Adin

1575-1576

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius David II Shah (1576-'91)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Ne`met Allah I

 

53.

Mor Baselios Philathose

1576-1591

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Pilate I (1591-'97)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius David II Shah

 

54.

Mor Baselios Abd al Ghani

1591-1597

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Pilate I

 

55.

Mor Pathros V Hadaya

1597

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Hadayat Allah (1597-1639)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Pilate I

 

56.

Mor Baselios Isaya

1626

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Hadayat Allah

 

57.

Mor Baselios Sakralla I

1639-1652

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Hadayat Allah

 

58.

Mor Baselios Abdul Masih I

1655-1662

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Abdul Masih I (1662-'86)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Simon I

 

59.

Mor Baselios Habeeb II

1665-1674

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Abdul Masih I

 

60.

Mor Baselios Yeldho

1678-1685

Born in the village of KOODED, also known as Karakosh (near Mosul in Iraq). 

Died when he was at Kothamangalam, India on 29 September 1685.  Entombed in the Marthoma CheriaPally Kothamangalam. Dhukrono is celebrated on 1st and 2nd of October.   

Name of the Saintly Maphrian is recited in TUBDEN as per the Patriarchal Bull No. E 265/87 dated October 20, 1987.

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Abdul Masih I

 

61.

Mor Baselios Gevarghese II

1674-1687

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Geevarghese II (1687-1708)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Abdul Masih I

 

62.

Mor Baselios Isahac II

1687-1709

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Isahac Azar (1709-'22)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Geevarghese II

 

63.

Mor Baselios Mathai

1709

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Isahac Azar

 

64.

Mor Baselios Lazar III

1713

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Isahac Azar

 

65.

Mor Baselios Mathai II

1714- ?

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Isahac Azar

 

66.

Mor Baselios Sakralla II

? -1722

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Shukr Allah II (1722-'45)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Isahac Azar

 

67.

Mor Gregorios Lazar IV

1730-1742

 

Patriarch Mor Mor Ignatius ShukrAllah II

 

68.

Mor Baselios Sakralla III of Aleppo

1748-1764

Consecrated Maphrian for the Church in Malabar in 1748.  he reached Malankara in 1751 and died at Kandanad on 20 Oct, 1764

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Geevarghese III

 

69.

Mor Baselios Geevarghese III Mosa

1760-1768

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Geevarghese IV (1768-'81)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Geevarghese III

 

70.

Mor Baselios Sleeba IV

1773- ?

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Geevarghese IV Mosa

 

71.

Mor Baselios Bishara

1782-1811

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Mathew

 

72.

Mor Baselios Yavanan

1803

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Mathew

 

73.

Mor Baselios Kurillos Abd  al Azeez

1811-1816

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Mathew

 

74.

Mor Baselios Mathew IV

1820

Retired in the same year of ordination

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Geevarghese IV

 

75.

Mor Baselios Elias II

1825-1827

Excommunicated following his affection towards the Roman Catholics

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Geevarghese IV

 

76.

Mor Baselios Elias III Ankas

1827-1838

Later enthroned PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH - Mor Ignatius Elias II (1838-'47)

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Geevarghese IV

 

77.

Mor Baselios Behanam IV

1852-1859

 

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Ya`qub II

 

In 1860,  Office of the Maphrianate of the East was abolished as per the decision of the Universal Synod held under the Patriarch Mor Ignatius Ya`qub II at the Deir ez-Za`faran Monastery (Kurkkumo Dayro) in Turkey

V.  CATHOLICOS OF THE JACOBITE SYRIAN CHURCH OF INDIA

In 1964, the office of the Maphrian was established in India, with the title ‘CATHOLICOS’. This was as per the decision of the Holy Episcopal Synod of the Universal Syrian Orthodox Church, held at Kottayam, under the venerable presidentship of Mor Ignatius Ya`qub III, the Patriarch of Antioch and all the East.

78.

Mor Baselios Augen I

1964-1975

Consecrated Catholicos on May 22, 1964  --  Removed from the office of the Catholicate (Maphrianate) in 1975 after the faction supporting him claimed to be a separate Church.

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Ya`qub III

 

79.

Mor Baselios Paulose II

1975-1996

Consecrated Catholicos on September 7, 1975  --  Died on September 1, 1996

Patriarch Mor Ignatius Ya`qub III

 

80.  

Mor Baselios Thomas I

2002

Consecrated Catholicos on July 26, 2002  

Patriarch Moran Mor Ignatius Zakka I

 
 
References:
 

      1.  Kalloopparambil Fr. V M Geevarghese :  "The Patriarchate of Antioch and the Malankara Syrian Church", 1995

2.  Wolfgang Hage: "Syriac Christianity in the East", 1997

3.  H.G. Kuriakose Mor Kurillos: "The Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church and The Catholicate of the East", 1990

4.  Chediyath Geevarghese: "Sabha Charithra Padanagal", 1996

5.  Chediyath Geevarghese: "BarEbraya Sabhacharithram", 1990

6.  O.S.S.A.E. Publication:  "Catholicate History", 1999

7.  D Babu Paul: "The Saint from Kooded", 1985

8.  H.G. Thomas Mor Athanasius (Muvattupuzha): "Relationship between the Orthodox Churches", 1990

9.  Chronological list of Patriarchs of Antioch published in the ‘Syriac Orthodox Resources’ web site

10.  Christine Chaillot: “The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch and all the East”, 1998

11.  Patriarch Ignatius Aphram I Barsoum, translated by Matti Moosa: “History of Syriac Literature and Sciences”, 2000

12.   Hollerweger Hans: “Living Cultural Heritage – TURABDIN”, 1999